House dust mite (HDM) allergens
House dust mites are the most important indoor allergen. Approximately 1-2% of the world population suffers from house dust mite allergy.
The house dust mites are arachnoids, that are part of the Pyroglyphidae family. The most important house dust mites are Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (in drier areas). Also Euroglyphus maynei belongs to the Pyroglyphidae family. Euroglyphus maynei is present in humid environments, especially where there is no liquid water to drink.
The house dust mites prefer to inhabitate very warm and humid environments. Usually they are found in settings where the temperature rises above 20 degrees and humidity is above 70%. The humidity is crucial for mite’s survival because they extract the water from the air. However, as a result of their great adaptability, they are able to survive in humidity saturations which are well below the optimal level. House dust mites prevail in every household and are living within dust, textile, carpets, beds and upholster furniture. The house dust not only provides a habitat for the mites, but also contains their food source: shed human skin scales which become colonized by molds, yeasts and bacteria. As a consequence of dusting, vacuuming and bed-making, the faecal pellets and smaller allergen – bearing particles become temporarily suspended in the air and may be inhaled by humans.
People who are genetically predisposed for allergies, also known as atopic people, can react to these particles (allergens) with manifestation of allergic symptoms. Allergens are (non) protein or substances which can induce an allergic response. The symptoms of an allergic response are comprised of: sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, red, itchy or teary eyes, wheezing, coughing, tightness in the chest and shortness of breath and itching. Furthermore, previous studies show that dust mite allergy is an independent risk factor for development of asthma.
For more information about HDM allergy check out “HDM allergy explained” under Support & Information.
Supplier of natural HDM allergens
Our main focus is the production of our own house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens. Citeq was born based on a passion for mites and the research for how mites influence our daily lives. Our founders and leading scientists have pharmaceutical, biological and biochemical backgrounds. With over 25 years of experience and an extensive knowledge about mites Citeq is more than just a supplier of natural allergen source material. We strive for an academic collaboration with our customers in order to achieve the best possible results in research, diagnostics and immunotherapy.
We deliver the D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae HDMs in different forms. The most popular form is the regular HDM extract but we can also deliver whole cultures, purified allergens (Der p 1/ Der p 2, Der f 1/ Der f 2), excrements and mite bodies. All of our products are freeze dried.
In our production process we do not add any proteins. The only compound we use in our products which is not strictly from mites is the medium where the mites feed on. This medium contains an absolute low number of non-mite proteins. We try to cultivate the mites with the lowest amount of bacteria and moulds possible. All our house dust mite products contain the native proteins, with no denaturing treatments during production and purification.
For more information regarding the benefits of our product standards please check out the “our quality” section of the website.
Description of the available forms:
Whole culture (vial of 1gr) A whole culture consist of all the material of the house dust mite cultivation. This means: mite bodies, eggs, larves, cultivation medium and the feaces. Whole culture contains all components which are also present within households. In real life, atopic patients respond to the whole culture of house dust mites. Citeq produces a controlled cultivation of house dust mites. Whole Cultures of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are mostly used as raw materials in the pharmaceutical production of vaccines and in vivo diagnostics. Available in vials of 1 gram.
Extract The concentrated extract of a house dust mite whole culture and our most popular product. Extracts are applied in in-vitro diagnostics tests and as standards or active substance in the research of asthma and allergy. Extracts are available in vials of 10 mg, 100 mg or 1 gram.
Extract (micro vial 200 µg BCA)) We have small micro vials of freeze dried house dust mite extract available which we have developed especially for research groups. Each vial contains 200 µg protein (BCA) for the use in animal model testing. With these small vials you are assured of a fresh solution for each use and it will avoid the problems of freezing and thawing and other circumstances which could degrade the product. 10 vials of 200 µg protein (BCA).
HDM mix The presence of D.farinae and D. pteronyssinus in a household is not mutually exclusive so we offer a mix of the D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus extract. Available in vials of 10 mg, 100 mg or 1 gram.
Extract with a low level of endotoxin This is the same extract as our regular extract but with with the endotoxin extracted from the final product. For the use in an allergic asthma animal model a certain level of endotoxin is needed. But for the use in cell cultures a endotoxin free (or very low) extract is needed.
Group 1 allergens purified (≥ 99%) Approx. 400-500 µg BCA per vial. Group 1 (Der p 1 of Der f 1) allergens have a molecular weight of 25 kDa, as monomer, neutral slightly acidic, and polymorph proteins. Citeq can extract the Group 1 allergens with a purity of ≥ 99%. At least 70% of allergic individuals recognize group 1 allergens. These allergens are identified in a lot of house dust mites (HDM). The allergens can be conceded through the whole body, but are mostly present in the feacel pellets of the HDM. The major allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 are mostly used in in-vitro diagnostic tests and in allergy and asthma research.
Der p 2 purified (≥ 99%) Approx. 200-300 µg BCA per vial. Group 2 (Der p 2 and Der f 2) allergens are neutral to slightly basic and polymorph. Citeq can extract the Group 2 allergens with a purity of ≥ 99%. The majority of allergic individuals recognize the 14kDa non-glycosylated allergens. Group 2 allergens are identified in a large number of HDM’s compared to other allergens. Group 2 allergens are abundantly present within the mite body. The major allergens Der p 2 and Der f 2 are mostly used in in-vitro diagnostic tests and in allergy and asthma research.
Certificate of analysis
Each product will be delivered with a certificate of analysis. The certificate of analysis provides information, e.g. allergenic pattern, protein content (BCA and Bradford method), endotoxin level, protein pattern and protease activity. On this page you can find an an example of this certificate. If you want to receive a certificate of analysis before ordering please let us know. We shall send you the certificates of multiple batches so you can compare the batches and choose the batch that meets your requirements.
We understand that if you are using source material which is fulfilling your wishes you would like to receive the same material again for future projects. To provide material from the same batch over a longer period of time we produce large batches. This way we have we a lot of material available from a specific batch. You can even place a reservation for future orders.
HDM induced asthma models
Often we receive questions about house dust mite (HDM) induced asthma models. Which models are researchers using, which model do we recommend, what are the differences? To answer these questions we have contacted multiple research institutes all over the world and collected their models and background information. Click on this link for an overview of the available animal models.
Interested in our products but not sure how they compare to what you might be used to using or to each other? Do not hesitate to contact us and we will personally guide you through a comparison to find the best fit for your needs. You can e-mail email@example.com, ask Thom Weitenberg on Researchgate via a quick chat message or call us on +31 (0)50 3137464.
We can provide detailed information regarding our products and help you understand how to put it to use for your work. For example see our explanation on comparing protein content measured by BCA and Bradford protein assays by clicking here.
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